Ergonomics Problems in Newspaper Layout Design

[Abstract] layout design is an important design element of newspapers, ergonomics has received great attention from major design, so this paper briefly discusses the visual aspect of ergonomics in layout design.

Keywords: layout design; ergonomics; vision

Newspapers are one of the indispensable sources of information in people's daily life. The true novelty of information is a decisive factor for newspapers to attract readers. The strengths and weaknesses of newspaper layout also play an important role in the popularity of newspapers. The so-called layout design refers to determining the reasonable layout of each element of the layout in a certain press publication format, that is, determining the size of the layout and the space occupied by the layout, the layout of the text, and the font size of the text. The space between lines, the position and layout of pictures and forms, the use of layouts, etc., make the layout of news publications aesthetic and unique. Excellent layout can not only enable newspapers to better convey information, display their unique aesthetic style, but also adapt to the physiological and psychological requirements of readers when reading; that is, excellent layout should be ergonomic layout design. . So, what is ergonomics? The International Ergonomics Society defines ergonomics as a study of various factors in human anatomy, physiology, and psychology in certain work environments; research on people and machines and the environment Interactions; studies on how to consider issues such as work efficiency, human health, safety, and comfort while working, in family life, and on vacation. This article will briefly discuss the ergonomics issues in newspaper layout design.

1 Visual physiology issues in layout design

People obtain information content in newspapers through their eyes. Therefore, people's visual requirements and visual habits are the primary factors that should be paid attention to in layout design. The visual problems that should be noted in layout design are as follows.

I) The person's eyes move faster in the horizontal direction than in the vertical direction and are less likely to fatigue. People generally see objects in the horizontal direction and then see objects in the vertical direction. At the same time, the human visual flow is generally from left to right. Right, top to bottom, and clockwise. Therefore, the layout of newspapers should try to align the text horizontally from left to right to ensure the legibility of the text.

2) When the human eye equidistantly deviates from the visual center, the observation on the left upper limit is best, followed by the right upper limit and the left lower limit, and the worst is the right lower limit. Therefore, as far as a newspaper is concerned, various parts of its pages can form different regional orders according to their strengths. If the value of the whole page is 100%, the attention value ratio of the various parts of the layout is different, as shown in Figure 1. As shown. In the area of ​​newspaper layout design, we attach great importance to the manufacture of the "visual shock center", generally through the largest photo, the largest font title of a certain edition, and the longest news release, placed in the best position on the layout. To create a visual shock center; because people's visual appeal to the layout of the layout is generally stronger than the lower part, the left half is stronger than the right half, so newspapers often put the visual shock center in the center of the first half of the header .

3) People's eyes always coordinate synchronous movement. Therefore, the layout of the newspaper should be based on the visual field of both eyes. The line of sight of the person's eyes should be 10 to 20 degrees, and the line of sight of the letters should be 5 to 30 degrees. The width of a layout is calculated by the number of columns. For horizontal newspapers, for example, the opening newspapers generally have 8 columns and 13 words for each column. The four opening newspapers have 7 columns and 11 words for each column. According to the reader's reading field width, parallel bars should pay attention to the general should not exceed three columns, otherwise it will lead to the column is too wide to read.

4) The human eye is more receptive to and recognizable than the contour of the straight line. Therefore, in the layout design of newspapers, the block planes are mostly segmented by straight lines, and the segments of the curve segment that are likely to cause confusion are less likely to appear.

2 Visual Psychology Problems in Layout Design

Visual psychology is currently an important issue for layout designers in all countries. Because of the improvement of human quality of life, people’s concern for physiological comfort has gradually increased to focus on psychological comfort. Therefore, it is important to understand and fully understand the psychological effects of visual factors in layout design on readers. condition.

1) Create visual flow through visual tension. When people completely receive the planar element information, the line of sight will form a habitual flow sequence: the viewpoint first falls into the visual focus, and then follows the strong and weak changes in the elements to make an orderly flow, and finally completes the information of all the elements. To absorb, many newspaper layout experts use visual tension to create visual processes. The so-called visual tension is the psychological stimulation through the contrast of visual elements. The greater the difference, the greater the visual tension. When a photo was added to the layout, the competitive situation was created and the flow of sight was naturally inevitable. If the two pictures are of equal weight, then the contrast of the visual elements is not obvious enough to produce visual tension. This layout makes the line of sight flow uncertain, obviously not in line with the principles of visual psychology. Between the images with different weights, the presence of tension enables the reader to have a clear visual flow, that is, the eyes first cast to the big picture and then to the smaller picture.

2) Pay attention to the pointing role of the picture fun center. The newspaper layout can use the pointing function of the picture interest center to generate psychological hints for readers, shift the line of sight out of the picture, break through the limitations of the picture, and concentrate on the layout of the photos. For example, we placed a picture of a character on a newspaper layout. The eyes of the characters are directed to the top left of the layout. The orientation of this fun center will direct readers' attention to the top left of the newspaper layout.

3) Reasonable use of blank space creates moderate psychological adjustment. There should be a moderate amount of space between the articles in the layout, one to separate the content of the article, and the other to give the reader breathing areas, so that the reader's visual and psychological tension are adjusted and relaxed. At the same time, we must also pay attention to the appropriateness of the white space, and we must not leave the wholeness of the layout broken. In general, the heading needs to be left blank; the gap between the header and the rest of the layout is generally 1/4 to 1/2 inch; the headline groups need to be left blank; the author’s signature and the first paragraph of the article need to be left blank; There is also a need for proper margins between the picture and the manuscript.

4) Pay attention to the beauty of layout design. With the development of the times, people's demand for newspapers is no longer a simple carrier of information. People demand the enjoyment of the United States while acquiring information. Therefore, the formal beauty of the layout should be particularly emphasized. The decorative elements of the layout are text, graphics, and colors. Through the combination, collocation, and composition of text, graphics, and color in the design, the use of formal rules of beauty and the use of exaggeration, metaphor, and symbolism create unique aesthetics. effect.

3 Conclusion

Newspaper layout is a vision-centered design category, but the ergonomic issues involved are not limited to visual physiology and visual psychology, but should also be considered in the actual design work. Factors and other issues. Therefore, the ergonomics study of newspaper layout needs to be continuously explored and discovered in practice. It will continuously improve the level of layout design of the entire newspaper publishing industry, and design excellent newspaper layouts that meet the needs of readers and adapt to the development of the times. .

Author / Xu Jin Nanchang University

Source: Packaging Engineering, 4th Issue, 2005

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